A Worldwide Wholesale Supplier of Turf and Forage Seeds

Types of Bluegrass

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Project No. 12264 defined twelve(12) types of Kentucky bluegrasses. The following description are taken from Rutgers Turfgrass Proceedings:

Aggressive Type

This group of cultivars is recognized for its aggressive lateral growth habit and the development of a turf with high shoot density. An aggressive, dense growth may be advantageous for highly trafficked turfs and can hasten the development of a mature sod. Aggressive cultivars can dominate other species or cultivars when used in blends or mixtures. If aggressive cultivars dominate a stand, this could lead to the rapid expression of the cultivar's strengths or weaknesses. The characteristics of spring green-up and disease susceptibility vary considerably among these cultivars. In 1995, these cultivars had good resistance to stripe smut disease. Winter dormancy and color is variable within this group, and recovery from summer stresses ranged from poor to moderate. Princeton 104, A-34, Limousine, and Touchdown are examples of Aggressive Types.

America Type

Within the Compact Type, a number of cultivars exhibit similar growth and performance characteristics to the cultivar America. These cultivars have moderate winter dormancy with some purpling. Moderate recovery from summer stress was observed within this group during 1995. They have shown good resistance to dollar spot, leaf spot, and stripe smut diseases. Examples are Unique and America.

Bellevue Type

These cultivars form a turf with medium-low growth, medium-wide leaves, and medium shoot density. Excellent cool-season vigor exists in this group, which is evident by the excellent color retention and turf quality during the winter and early spring green-up. Bellevue types have moderate recuperative ability from summer stress and possess good resistance to leaf spot and current races of stripe smut disease. Reproductive stems can be obvious in these turfs during late spring. Banff, Classic, Georgetown, and Freedom are examples of Bellevue.


This widely used group of cultivars has high seed yield potential and can generally produce good quality turf. These cultivars have medium-low growth, medium-wide leaves, and produce a medium-density turf. Seed heads frequently detract from the appearance of these cultivars in late spring and early summer. Although th BVGM group has moderately good resistance to leaf spot disease, all entries evaluated in long term trials at Rutgers are susceptible to a new race of stripe smut diseases. This group of cultivars generally has poor winter color and greater winter dormancy. Recovery form summer stress ranged from poor to moderate. Abbey, Viva, Merit, Baron, Victa, and Kelly are examples of BVGM Types.


These turf-type cultivars exhibit early spring green-up. This group has moderate to good stripe smut resistance, good resistance to leaf spot, and variable winter color and dormancy. Examples of CELA Types are Challenger, Eclipse, Liberty and Adelphi.

Compact Type

Cultivars within this group are characterized by a low, compact growth habit and possess good to excellent resistance to leaf spot disease. Many cultivars can form a highly attractive turf after slow green-up in spring. Generally, these cultivars have a long winter dormancy, and a purple coloration can be observed on many cultivars during cold weather. Some cultivars, however, do exhibit better winter performance than others. Performance during summer heat and drought stress is variable, with some cultivars producing good turf quality. Poor to excellent recover from summer stress was observed in the group. Entries in this group exhibited good resistance to stripe smut disease. Examples of Compact Type bluegrasses are Midnight, Able I, Nugget, Glade, and Barsweet.

Julia Type

This group of cultivars is similar in appearance and performance to the cultivar Julia. These cultivars form a turf of medium to dark green color with medium texture, and exhibit medium to good winter color and spring green-up. These cultivars have good resistance to leaf spot disease, but show susceptibility to dollar spot disease. Julia type cultivars have shown good wear tolerance in European tests. Examples include Julia and Caliber

Mid-Atlantic Ecotype

This group of cultivars forms a vigorous turf of medium-high density with a deep, extensive rhizome system. In general, this group has moderate susceptibility to leaf spot disease; exceptions are Livingston, SR 200, and Bel 21, which have moderately good resistance. Their ability to recover from leaf spot damage and other stresses is excellent due to a deep extensive system of rhizomes. Most of these cultivars have good tolerance of summer stress and exhibited good recovery after summer stress in 1995. This group has moderate to good winter performance, and generally shows an attractive appearance in early spring. Preakness, Monopoly, and Eagleton would be other examples of Mid-Atlantic Ecotypes.

Wabash Types

Within the Mid-Atlantic Ecotype are a number of selections that exhibit growth and performance characteristics similar to the cultivar Wabash. They have a medium-green color, excellent heat tolerance, and above average resistance to billbugs. They are moderately susceptible to leaf spot, but show good recovery from this disease.

Common Type (formerly Midwest Ecotype)

Common type Kentucky bluegrass are characterized by an erect growth habit and a narrow leaf blade. Common type should not be confused with the seed label term variety not states or VNS. Common types are typically used for conservation purposes, permanent pastures, and low maintenance utility turf. Many of these cultivars were selections of naturalized ecotypes found in old pastures of the Midwestern United States. These cultivars produce seed early and economically, exhibit good stress tolerance and often survive summer drought in a dormant condition. Common type cultivars are susceptible to leaf spot disease and may be extensively damaged by this disease during the cool, humid conditions of winter and spring. Poor turf quality and excessive purple coloration is typical during winter. They are best adapted to high cutting heights in regions with cool nights, bright sun, and low humidity. Common types seem particularly suited for low maintenance utility turf areas where soil stabilization and conservation are needed. they green up early in the spring and show an attractive bright spring color until leaf spot damage becomes excessive. This group includes Alene, Huntsville, Kenblue, and Ginger.

Other Turf Types

This group of cultivars and selections possess characteristics intermediate between two or more of the previously discussed groups. Further study is needed to identify new types of cultivars or recognize the characteristics of a cultivar that are common to a known group. Included in this group are Washington, Coventry Ram I, Broadway, and Estate.